Dynamic Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Available online at http://www.journaldynamics.org/djest
Vol. 2(1), pp.1-6, May 2017
Article ID: DJEST/JDYA19531655
Copyright © 2017
Original Research Paper
Screening of phytochemicals in bean grains (Phaseolus and Vigna spp.) methanolic extracts by thin layer chromatography technique
Owusu, Ebenezer1*. Isaac Kwadwo1, Essilfie, Matthew Kweku1Marfo Kwarteng,1and Amuzua Kwadwo, Obeng
1Department of Plant and Environmental Biology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon.
2Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon.
Received 5 November, 2016; Accepted 30 March, 2017; Available on-line 12 May, 2017.
The aim of the study was to screen the phytochemicals of bean grains Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus lunatus (black-eyed), Phaseolus lunatus (large seed with white coat), Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) and Vigna sesquipedalis (Yardlong). Total phenol content ranged between 2.84 and 13.04 [mg GAE/g] about a mean of 11.27 [mg GAE/g]. Total flavonoids content also ranged from 2.30 to 14.30 mgRUE/g with a mean of 13.41 mgRUE/g. Alkaloids were present in all the extracts of the samples with exception of white seeded Phaseoluslunatus which did not show any activity. Flavonoids, saponin and terpene were present in all methanolic extracts of all the four samples. A total of 17 different bands were recorded for flavonoids with Rf values ranging between 0.06 and 0.82. Saponins gave a total of 19 different bands with Rf values ranging from 0.08 to 0.93. A total of 15 different bands were recorded for terpenes with Rf values ranging from 0.05 to 0.91. From the phytochemical analysis and the thin layer chromatograph profiles the methanolic extracts of the grain legumes investigated are of medicinal values.
Keywords: Grain Legumes, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Terpenes, Chromatography.