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Kubkomawa et al

Dynamics Journal of Veterinary  Science

Available online at

Vol.1(1), pp.1-8, February 2016

Article ID: DJVS/15/011

Copyright ©2016


Review Paper

Accessibility of health care delivery services to pastoral cattle producers in tropical Africa: A review

I.  H.  Kubkomawa1*,A. Ahmadu2 and C. V. Anyanwu1

1Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

2Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author.

Received 8 November, 2015; Accepted 5 February, 2016.


The objective of the study was to review the accessibility of health care delivery services to pastoral cattle producers in tropical Africa. Many studies have shown that, majority of farmers preferred ethno-veterinary approaches because it is readily available and cheap, while access to conventional veterinary health care is usually poor and exorbitant in rural areas of Africa. The common ethno veterinary medicines and ingredients in Africa include different plant parts, such as roots, barks, leaves, flowers, juice or nectars, fruits, seeds, vegetable oils, castor oil, sugar, wood ash and charcoal which are used in ethno – veterinary preparations. Parts and products of animals, such as horns, skins and hides, bones, milk, butter, cod liver oil, fish oil, snake oil, old honey and even urine and dung also form the  ingredients for ethno-veterinary preparations. Other ethno-veterinary ingredients include earth materials such as edible earth, termite and anthills, magic black stones, limestone, salt and red potash, which are commonly used in decoctions and concoctions based on their healing and preservative properties. Spiritual forces may, also, be invoked by prayers during rituals. Studies have shown that, rituals are important in the interaction between African livestock keepers and their animals. To ensure that the herd thrives and increases in size in Africa, animal husbandry is usually ritualized while conventional veterinary medicine is relegated to the background. Government should bridge the gap of physical isolation of pastoralists; environmental constraints; absence of functional extension services; distorted agricultural development policies as well as an enduring disconnection between government and aspirations of the pastoralists.

Keywords: Accessibility, Health Care Delivery, Pastoral Cattle Producers, Tropical Africa.