Journal of Dynamics in Agricultural Research
Available online at http://www.journaldynamics.org/jdar
Vol.3(1), pp.12-18, August 2016
Article ID: JDAR/JDYA28155658
Copyright © 2016
Original Research Paper
Laboratory investigations of candlewood Zanthoxylum Xanthoxyloides as a grain protectant against Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky and Callosobruchus Maculatus (f.)
Koomson, C.K.1*, Owusu, E.O.2, Ayertey, J.N3 , and Obeng-Ofori, D4
1Environmental Protection Agency, Chemicals Control and Management Centre, P.O. Box M. 326, Accra, Ghana.
2Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.
3,4Crop Science Department, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.
*Corresponding Author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org.
Received 10 May, 2016; Accepted 12 July, 2016.
Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides is a plant that is traditionally used for the treatment of ailments like tooth aches, leprous ulceration and ulcers, syphilitic sores, fever, post-delivery pains while the leaves are fed to ruminants. The insecticidal effects of Z. xanthoxyloides tablets formulations made from extracts of a combination of plant parts were assessed in the laboratory. The extracts were 2.2ml leaves and 1.8ml roots; 2.4ml leaves and 1.6ml roots; 2.6ml leaves and 1.4ml roots; 2.8ml leaves and 1.2ml roots; 2.2ml leaves and 1.8ml bark; 2.4ml leaves and 1.6ml bark; 2.6ml leaves and 1.4ml bark; 2.8ml leaves and 1.2ml bark. The target insects were the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Five tablets of each preparation were randomly placed in 5kg of grains to assess toxicity or grain protection by fumigation, persistency and repellency. The effective tablet formulations were extracts made up of 2.2ml leaves and 1.8ml roots; 2.4ml leaves and 1.6ml roots; 2.2ml leaves and 1.8ml bark and 2.4ml leaves and 1.6ml bark. These caused nearly 50% mortality, offered about 92% protection to both maize and cowpea in terms of weight loss and was repellent to both insects. There was however, a rapid loss of repellency and toxicity activities after 7 days following treatment, irrespective of the dosage applied. Z. xanthoxyloides tablets could be prepared for resource-poor farmers to protect grains against stored-products infestation.
Keywords: Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), grain protectant.