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Arshad et al

Dynamic Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

Available online at

Vol.1(1), pp.1-6, January 2016

Article ID: DJEST/15/011

Copyright © 2016


Original Research Paper

Impact of City Effluent on Agricultural Land at Sharafi Goth, Malir – Karachi

Imran Arshad1*, Hafeez -ur- Rehman Mangio2 and Zaheer Ahmed Khan3

1Agriculture Engineer, Star Services LLC, Al Muroor Road – Western Region of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

2Asistant Professor, Department of Energy and Environment, FAE – SAU, Tandojam, Pakistan.

3Lecturer, Department of Farm Structures, FAE – SAU, Tandojam, Pakistan.

*Corresponding Author.


Received 22 October, 2015; Accepted 30 November, 2015, Available on-line 10 December, 2015.


It is a common experience in Pakistan that untreated city effluent is generously used to grow vegetable in urban areas to provide fresh vegetables to the inhabitants of bigger cities. By keeping this fact in view a research study was conducted in Sharafi Goth, Malir, Karachi, Sindh–Pakistan to ascertain the quality of city effluent used for irrigation and simultaneously its effect on soil and vegetables. Effluent samples from site was regularly collected from October 2012 to April 2013 along with soil samples at 0-6, 6-12, 12-18, 18-24, and 24 – 30 inches soil depths. Likewise, vegetables samples (leaves and fruits) were also collected separately. All the samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties and detection of heavy metals was also carried out. The standard of irrigation water was adjudged keeping in view Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC). It is detected that all these factors found beyond allowed limits. The results achieved from the chemical analysis of the samples revealed that heavy metals concentration was found in higher side at Sharafi Goth. Cadmium, Arsenic and Lead were found in samples collected from the city effluent beyond the specified limits. It was revealed that the heavy metal accumulation on the edge of increase in leaves as compared to respective fruits, Pb deposit were more prominent as compared to Cd and Ar. The amount of Cd and Ar used to decrease with increase in soil depth. The injudicious use of untreated sewage water for irrigation purpose may constitute serious repercussion, that is, consumption of subject crops is a great hazard to animal and human health which necessitate to stop it immediately.

Key words: City Effluent, Agriculture, Heavy Metals, Vegetables, Irrigation, Water Quality, Malir, Karachi.